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======Junkers Ju 87 B-2====== =====Engine===== Junkers Jumo 211 D with blower height = 3500 m ^ on ground up to 6 km height ^^^ above 6 km height ^^ | rating | RPM | ata | RPM | ata | | 1' | 2300 | 1,35 | --- | --- | | 30' | 2300 | 1,15 | 2300 | 1,15 | | d | 2200 | 1,10 | 2300 | 1,10 | ===== III. Engine Start, Warm Up And Braking ===== ====1. Engine Start==== * Lever for the dive brakes in position "0". * Lever for the landing flaps-elevator trim in position "0". * Check fuel- and oil reservoir. Before engine start to reduce the danger, that the aircraft by braking moves to head, weight the fuselage end down with 50 kg or anchor the skid. ====Electrical Start==== **Attention!** If the engine uses prior diluted oil (cold start arrangement), then only start the engine if **directly afterwords** departure follows. Aircraft,who at -5°C and deep temperatures are parked in the open, **should not be started without cold start arrangement or prior warm up.** - Connect the generator wagon to the outboard connector for engine start (left engine side). Activate automatic circuit breaker "Generator" and "Ferntrennschalter" at the switch panel. Do **not** activate the automatic circuit breaker "Außenboardanschluß"[outboard connection] between former 5 and 6. The current to **start** should always be obtained from the **outboard connector behind the engine**. If no outboard power source is available, then it is in emergencies **not** possible to start the engine with the battery. - Set lever for the propeller pitch (left fuselage side) to "Start". - Crank the propeller once with the lash at **deactivated ignition**. (Equal distribution of oil in the engine.) At low temperatures (below -15°C) warm up the injection pump lukewarm with a warm air heater. At heavy cold, even with prior diluted oil, break the propeller with the lash loose first, at cranking repeatedly inject fuel with the Sum-injector pump (easing the start up). **Caution!** Cranking of the engine by hand only at **closed shut off valve** and **deactivated ignition**. At cranking with opened shut off valve, fuel get into the burning chamber and washes the oil film off. Besides exists the danger of engine start at hot engine temp, therefore hand cranking is forbidden. - Pull the handle for the shift blower in position "Bodenlader"[ground blower]. - Set shut off valve (instrument panel left below) in position "l+r Behälter und Handpumpe". - Shortly test the electrical fuel pumps (tank pumps) through pushing the circuit breaker "Tankpumpen" at the switch panel. Fuel pressure at standing engine 0,75 atü. - Use the fuel hand pump (Instrument panel right below) and check at pressure gauge. Use only hand pump by shut off valve in top position or in position "r Behälter II und Handpumpe". - The circuit breaker "Sparfluganlage"[econ. flight device] at the right switch panel must be activated. This circuit breaker is only a saveguard for the device, actuation of the rich-lean-shifting occur through the propeller pitch lever. (Only for engines with rich-lean-device.) - Set ignition switch to "M1 + M2". - Set throttle to idle respectively a little forward. - With the Sum-injection pump (instrument panel right) fill the fuel line first, then at sensible resistance inject with 6 to 8 pump strokes at winding starter. At cold outside temperature and cold engine inject 10 to 12 pump strokes. **Don't inject at hot engine.** - **Push** the starter lever (instrument panel left below) circa 10 sec.( at cold weather at most 20 sec.), until starter is winded. - **Pull** the starter lever until engine is running. After engine start release the lever immediately. Pumping with the throttle lever is useless. If the engine doesn't start, let the starter rest first for 1-2 minutes before the next start up attempt. ====Hand Start==== - Crank the propeller before 1. start up at **deactivated ignition and closed shut off valve** once. - Carry out step 2-11 from "electrical start". - Insert crank handle for winding the momentum starter into the designed opening left before the bulkhead firewall. Before the **winding from hand** lift the brushes from the starter. Handle next to the clutch lever at the winding shaft. - Wind the momentum starter with the crank handle up to sense and hearing can no bigger speed-up be achieved. - Pull the starter lever (instrument panel). In an emergency pull the clutch lever next to the crank handle simultaneous to the pulled starter lever (instrument panel). After clutch in apply the brushes of the starter. At lifted brushes the handle sticks so far out, that the engine cowling can only be closed at applied brushes. ====2. Warm Up==== **I. Without cold start device** (before first workshop flight or engine change). * After start-up let the engine run with 600 U/min[RPM] until oil pressure rises. * If the oil pressure doesn't raise after 15 seconds, **stop** the engine immediately. * Raise the rev to 1000-1200 U/min[RPM]. * At rising revolution do not let the oil pressure exceed 7 atü. * Avoid revolutions below 1000 U/min[RPM]. * Let the engine warm up until following values are reached: ^ water outlet temperature | 40-50°C | ^ oil inlet temperature | 20-25°C | ^ oil pressure | 4-6 atü | * Then with raise revs warm up until: ^ water outlet temperature | 60-70°C | ^ oil inlet temperature | 30-40°C | * Monitor water temperature. Adjustment through actuation ofwater cooler flaps (push buttons at instrument panel left top). **II. With cold start device** * Check concentration of fuel in the oil from time to time. * If the engine runs with diluted oil, then long warm up are detrimental to the engine. * **Shortest departure times,** that is from the point of starting to braking, are: | at 0°C | 1,5 min | | at -10°C | 2,5 min | | at -20°C | 3,5 min | * This departure times can be a little bit exceeded, without damaging the engine. * After start-up let the cold engine run with 600 U/min[RPM] until oil pressure rises. * If the oil pressure doesn't raise after 15 seconds, **stop** the engine immediately. * When the oil pressure reaches the max permissible value of 7 atü, adjust the throttle lever as high, that this value is held, but not exceeded. * Is the highest revolution and manifold pressure reached, then **short braking**, afterwards departure. * **The water temperatures** at cold start through oil dilution **don't** need to be observed. * **The oil inlet temperature** should preferably not lie above 30°C. * Keep the **water cooler flaps** closed as long as possible, until at departure circa 40°C or more are reached. * **malfunction plan** At malfunction the plan for the Jumo 211 B+D will give information of malfunction cause, characteristics and troubleshooting. * **Checks at warm up** (with and w/o cold start device, by first one mind the times). * **a) Landing gear brakes** * The aircraft must be hold [in stand] at n = 1600 U/min[RPM]. * **b) Landing Flaps** *The landing flaps have to be deployed multiple times. * **c) Dive Brakes** * Set lever slowly in position "Bremsen"[brake]. Observe the deployment of both braking flaps at the red rods on the wings. The locking can be seen in a pressure increase. At doubt check the locking through push and pull on the braking flaps (2. man under the wing). Check if "Blaues Ate Öl"[blue Ate oil?] needs to be refilled into the reservoir. * **d) Aileron** * The aileron must be full movable at deployed landing flaps. * **e) Generator** * Switch of the generator (switch panel), activate the battery through"Ferntrennschalter". Activate the Landing light as a resistor. (ampere meter indicates "Entladen"[discharge].) Activate generator. Ampere meter must indicate "Laden"[charge] (Revolution of the engine circa 1400 U/min[RPM].) * **f) Propeller** *Activate the propeller pitch adjustment at running engine several times. ====3. Braking==== * Before braking check again if the rear fuselage is loaded with 50 kg weight. * Only short-time braking! (circuit breaker for econ. flight activated.) * Landing flaps in "Reise"[travel] position(0°), pull the elevator. * Pitch the propeller in position "Start". * Increase throttle, until: ^ Revolutions | n<sub>min</sub> = 2200 U/min[RPM] | ^ manifold pressure | p = 1,35 +/-0,03 ata | * Check ignition plugs at 0,90-1,00 ata manifold pressure: Ignition to M2 then M1 or reversed. * The allowed RPM loss at activated circuit breaker for econ. flight is: | by switching at right magneto (M1) | up to 50 U/min[RPM] | | by switching at left magneto (M2) | up to 100 U/min[RPM] | * The engine mustn't shake at switching to M1 or M2. * **After braking** do not idle the engine (soot), Revolution 1000-1200 U/min[RPM]. * Shut off the engine, if departure doesn't follows(Cold start device). =====Flight===== ====General==== The operation data card can be found at the left cockpit side. The allowed engine values are marked on the gauges through red dashes respectively luminous material. Name plates at the handling devices are present. ====Flight Characteristics==== * The aircraft is certificated for **Gruppe H5**[group H5] with 4500 kg and **H3** with 5000 kg. It has good stability at all axes and of limited suitability for blind flight. * **The effect of all rudders and forces** are good adjusted to each other and for every case, even for aerobatics, full sufficient. * By **over-pull with full throttle** at v<sub>a</sub>= 130 km/h (landing flaps in "Reise"[travel] position) a gradual, not suddenly pitch down begins. After pitching the aircraft is immediately controllable again. A turn around the vertical axis doesn't occur. A tendency to spin is not present. A Spin can only be forced, but is strictly forbidden for aircraft of this weight. * By **over-pull in idle** at v<sub>a</sub>= 110 km/h (landing flaps in "Lande"[landing] position) a little pitch down occurs. The aircraft returns immediately back into the normal flight attitude. The danger of a nose-dive at landing doesn't exist. * **stall** at over-pull at full throttle or idle only in the middle. ====Oil Pressure Device==== * The oil pressure device conducts of 2 oil pressure lines I and II. Through that it is possible to activate 2 devices, for instance water cooler flaps and dive brakes or landing flaps, at the same time. * **Principally only use one device after another, that means only activate the water cooler flaps, when the lever for dive or landing flaps is in position "Aus"[off].** * **After every activation** return the lever into "0" position, id est idle-position. ====Weight Distribution==== ====Clothing==== ====Entry==== * The entry has to take place at stopped engine. * **To open** both canopy through turning of a handle on the left side and pushing the canopy back at the same time. * **Closing of the front canopy** through pushing in end position. Plate "Gesichert"[secured] has to appear on both sides. * **Closing of the rear canopy** through lever below the Ikaria-mount. ====Pilot Departure Preparations==== * The pilot checks at entry into the aircraft, if at the switch panel following buttons are pressed in: * Ferntrennschalter * Generator * Anlaßzündung[starter ignition] * Meßgeräte[gauges] * Kühlerklappenverstellung[cooler flaps adjuster] * Sparfluganlage[econ. flight device] ( only at engines with rich-lean-device) * Kontrollanlage * Fernkompaß[compass] * Tankpumpen * All other circuit breaker are activated if needed. * For high-altitude flight check if both bottle valves in the pilot and gunner cabin are opened. * Adjust seat and rudder paddles to the height of the pilot before the flight. Secure paddle left and right always in the same holes. * All control-face movements must be smooth running and analogous to actuation. * Adjust the fine-rough-altimeter to the height of the airfield above the sea. * Turn the variometer button to "V". * Trim indicator (left cockpit side) to center marks. * Lever for landing flaps and horizontal stabilizer to position "0". * Lever for dive breakes to position "0". * Lever for the propeller pitch to position "Start". * Lever for the tail skid lock to "Sporn lose"[skid free]. * Adjust ventilation nozzle at the instrument panel. Additional ventilation can be adjusted through the button in the cockpit left below. * Fuel shut off valve in top position "l+r Behälter und Handpumpe". * Pull the handle for stage blower (instrument panel top left) in position "Bodenlader"[ground blower]. * Handle for oil cooler flaps in position "Auf"[open]. * Ignition switch in position "M1 + M2". * Check fuel reservoir (selector switch and gauge at the instrument panel center below). * Check oil reservoir through dipstick. * For replenish values see page 10.02 to 10.06. * **The engine start** follows like described at page 10.11 to 10.13[[ju87b2|(back to top)]]. * **At great cold** see page 10.15 for warm up with cold start device [see **II. With cold start device**] * If **departure delays**, then stop the engine again. ====Taxing to departure==== * Lever for the tail skid lock to "Sporn lose"[skid free]. * Open water cooler (push left pressure button at the instrument panel top left, check position indicator top right, lever for oil cooler in position "Auf"[open]. * Lever for landing flaps/horizontal stabilizer in position "Start"[25°]. If respective signal lamp is on , lever back to position "0". * If the aircraft is prepared for cold start and oil entry temperature rises above 30°C, abort departure if possible until the temperature goes down again. * Nurse the brakes, temporary discontinue brake maneuver. * To turn on one wheel is prohibited. ====Take-Off==== * Through short rolling straightforward bring the skid in center position. * Lever for the tail skid lock to "Sporn fest"[skid secured]. * Activate **Staurohrheizung[pitot heater]** at great density and temperatures below 0°C (circuit breaker at the switch panel). * Activate the additional fuel pumps (circuit breaker "Tankpumpen"). * **Landing flaps** in position "Start"[25°] * Elevator must w/o big resistance be movable to the end positions. * Propeller pitch in "Start" position. * Gunner sits in flight direction. The chest-rest has to be used. * Quickly increase throttle, throttle lever until end stop "Auf" | 1 min power | n = 2300 U/min max. | | | p = 1,35 ata | * Take-off speed at full load: | v<sub>a</sub>= 115 km/h | * The **take-off distance** at full take-off weight in still air and up to an height of 20 m is circa 500 m. * Straight after take-off throttle back from "Auf" position. | 30 min power (climb- and fight-power) | | n = 2300 +/- 40 U/min | | p = 1,15 ata | ====Climb==== * Retract **landing flaps** to "Reise und Steigen"[travel and climb] in sufficient height, because the aircraft looses height through change of airflow. * If both signal lamps are on, lever back to position "Aus"[off]. * **Velocity for best climb** | V<sub>a</sub> = 215 km/h at ground | * With each km height v<sub>a</sub> reduces by 10 km/h, so that in 7 km height v<sub>a</sub> = 145 km/h is reached. * Propeller pitch is left in position "Start - Steigen". * **Engine revolution** must nor exceed n = 2300 +/- 40 U/min. ====Blower shift heights==== * Blower shift ensued at aircrafts with Jumo 211 D/1 engine automatically at position "Automatic". | in climb from ground blower[BL] to height blower[HL] | at 2,5 km | | in dive from height blower[HL] to ground blower[BL] | at 2,2 km | * The set-back of the shift height from before 3,5 km to now 2,5 km is caused, that after the **dive**, especially below 3,5 km, for a fast fly through the enemy defense zone a short-time taking of start power in needed, which couldn't be achieved in this heights with the ground blower. * **It is principally to consider** * **In normal-climb** shift blower not until **3,5 km** height, therefor at departure position "Bodenlader"[ground blower], to prevent automatic shift at 2,5 km. At 3,5 km height shift **manually** from BL to "Automatik"(height blower) respectively shift in accordance to the distance chart. (When flying in formation shift collectively by order.) * **Dive** with position "Automatik". The shift to BL in dive and to HL in the following climb goes automatically. **To fly with HL in height below 3,5 km is forbidden, as long no reason exist to use the start power.** * By manually shifting, it is not necessary to reduce the throttle beforehand. After shifting adjust the engine again to travel power. ====Water out-let temperatures==== * The temperature should not sink below 60°C, in travel flight between 70-80°C and not exceed the following values: | 0-3000 m | 95°C | | 4000 m | 90°C | | 6000 m | 85°C | | 8000 m | 80°C | * Adjust through water cooler flaps. * **Attention!** If the overpressure valve of the cooling-device releases steam (water sprays on the right sight of the windowpane), then completely open the cooler flaps and reduce throttle, until the water temperature decreases. Afterwards operate the engine normal again, but continuously monitor the water temperature. If it exceed again, abort flight because of water loss. * If the valves open below the given values for the heights, then it must be overhauled. Inform the "1. Wart"[1. warden/mechanic]. * At a failure of the electric-oil-activated cooler-device, the flaps can be opened manually with the handle (Notzug) at the instrument panel right below. After pulling the handle the clutch for the water-cooler-flaps will snap in again, if the oil pressure device if functioning. ====Oil temperatures==== **Entry:** * gauge at the instrument panel. * Temperatures not below 30°C and not above 90°C, in travel flight between 70-80°C. * Adjustment through lever at the instrument panel right below. * By exceeding of allowed temperatures for water or oil reduce throttle. **Outlet:** max. 95°C ====Oil pressure==== * between 4-6 atü. Indication shouldn't fluctuate. * In height above 7 km the pressure can fall to 3,5 atü. ====Fuel Pressure==== * 1,0-1,5 atü. * fuel pressure must not fall below 0,8 atü. * By pressure below 0,8 atü activate electrical fuel pumps. * Otherwise activate the electrical fuel pumps only at take-off, landing(touch-and-go) and at flight in high height, when engine power reduces (fuel-deficit through insufficient delivery of the engine pump). ====Travel Flight==== * propeller pitch lever in position "Sturz-Reise"[Dive-travel]. | Revolution | n = 2100 U/min | | manifold pressure | p = 1,10 ata | | True Air Speed || | on ground | v<sub>w</sub> = ~ 300 km/h | | in 5 km height | v<sub>w</sub> = ~ 350 km/h | * For more info about * velocity * beneficial heights * RPM and manifold pressure * flight distances and times as well as * fuel consumption (see also operation data card) * see the **Flugstreckentabelle Ju 87 B-2**[flight distance chart], issued from the Erprobungsstelle Rechlin[test center Rechlin]. * At distance flights above 6 km with engines with mechanical fuel-rich, do not set the throttle continuously the end position "Auf", since fuel-rich will be activated. Strong reduction of flight distance w/o major power gain. * In this case reduce throttle until the manifold pressure begins to fall (needle width). * **Oil consumption** at n= 2100 U/min and 1,10 ata, circa 10,6 l/h. ====Fuel metering==== * Indication electrical. Check content through switching between left and right tank. * **Keep in mind to drain the tanks equally.** * Rest fuel warning indication for each tank through electrical lamps. By activation for each tank min. 30 l are left. * Since no cross-feeding is built-in, by a failure of a fuel line, fuel distribution is ensued from only one tank. Both tanks have no connection, to prevent leak of both tanks through damage from flak/fire. * Use the hand pump only at tank selection "l + r Behälter" (top position) or "r Behälter II" (right tank), since only in the right shut-off-valve is a hand pump (membrane pump) integrated. * At malfunction of the complete fuel delivery a contingency rating can be maintained. * **oil supply indication** during flight is impossible. ====Flight at height==== * At 4000 m height activate the height-breathing-device. Open bottle vents(beside the lungs). * Don't stop started oxygen-breathing in height above 4000 m, even for moments. * Check oxygen-pressure. By a pressure of 150 atü the supply is sufficient for 3 hours. * Keep in mind to regulate the additional-air-valve for heights between 4-6 km and 6-10 km. * Above 6000 m height only pure oxygen-breathing. * At freezing mask reduce height immediately below 4000 m. * **If pressure of 20 atü is reached, also reduce height below 4000 m.** * Close valves after usage. * For more information for the height-breathing-device see L.Dv.291. ====Night Flight==== * Position lights. * Cockpit lights. * Activate landing light (only at take-off and landing) through pressing the circuir breaker at the switch panel on the right cockpit side. * Regulation of the cockpit light through dimmer at the instrument panel left. * Regulation of the Revi-light throught the dimmer at the Revi. ====Flight to Target==== * Open the cover of the flour window. * Pull handle in front-left of the stick and turn it counter-clockwise. * Activate window-washer-system (press button right to the Revi). ====Dive==== * Pay attention to following points: - Do not dive with over 90°. Begin the dive in a manner, that at aiming in the dive the aircraft will not be pushed over the 90° position (as example the case of back wind). In this case begin more shallow. - Dive height is optional. - **Do not dive w/o extracted dive-brakes.** The extraction of the dive-brakes within the dive is forbidden. **The Dive speed** will at a weight of 4300 kg in a 90°-dive limited to ca. 540 km/h through the dive-brakes. This velocity will be reached after ca. 1500 m dived height. Highest allowed dive speed of the Ju 87 B-2: 600 km/h. - Through pressing of the B-Button at the stick the flare out will(at the end from signal of the contact-height-meter) be initiated (small ruck) and with that the pilot prompted to pull the stick further until the security stop (in an emergency push over it). The flare out with the stick at the security stop correlate with the max. load-factor of 6 G and command a radius of 450 m. From that with an addition of a small security-factor the **lowest release-height** for training flights will be 650m. For more information about lowest bombing altitude and allowed flare out radii for the used ammunition see L.Dv. for "Ju 87 B Abwurfwaffe". - It is forbidden to operate the trim within the dive and the flare out. - Course corrections through the aileron and the rudder in a dive are considering sturdiness uncritical, as long they are not abrupt. - Flare out as well as landing with bombs is uncritical. - After flare out the brakes must be retracted and the water-cooler-flaps opened. * **Before the dive follow these steps:** * Points 1-4 are omitted at travel-flight to dive - Landing flaps to "Reise" and lever to "0"-position. - Elevator trim to "Reise". - Rudder to "Reise". - Propeller pitch to "Reise". - Activate the circuit breaker for the "Kontakthöhenmesser"[contact-height-meter] at the switch panel. - Adjust the contact height meter to release height. - Blower shift stays at "Automatik". - Throttle back. - close cooler-flaps. - Extract dive-brakes. * With **extraction of the Dive-brakes** the aircraft tents to, through the automatic, simultaneous activation of the flare-out-mechanism, nose-down into a dive. It is still possible to continue to fly horizontal. * To prevent undercooling of the engine by a dive from high height add some throttle. * The **grade lines** (angle scale) at the right front side-window of the pilot canopy for the angles of 30-90° serve to control the dive-angle to the horizon. * **Attention!** Do not dive, if the brakes doesn't extract. * If the Aircraft doesn't flare out, it is possible to flare out manually by overcoming high elevator forces (security control of 30 kg) respectively with the help of the elevator trim. * **Following Climb** * Retract Dive-brakes. * Propeller pitch to "Start-Steigen". * Throttle up until 1,15 ata manifold pressure. * At enemy fire can be flown with n = 2300 U/min and 1,35 ata manifold pressure. * open cooler flaps. * **Operation of the Dive-Brakes** * **Flare-out-mechanism** ====Landing==== * Mind to do a **3-point-landing**, else damage of wheel-skid. * **Landing with full bomb load** is allowed, but if possible to avoid. In case of emergency it must be landed with extracted dive-brakes respectively activated security-device, it is nonhazardous, but the security-device (30kg) has to be over-pushed by pull through. * Set **Propeller pitch** to position "Start". * **Distance for landing** * The distance for landing at fully extracted landing flaps, weight of 4300 kg and still air at an **approach speed of v<sub>a</sub> = 150 km/h:** from touch-down to stand 300 m with wheel brakes. * After roll-out tail skid lock to “Sporn lose”[skid loose]. * Retract landing flaps to position "Reise und Steigen". * **Landing training** * By training of landing and often use of wheel brakes, do pauses of several minutes to cool the wheel brakes. * **Engine Shut Down** * Open cooler flaps. * Let the engine run with 1400 U/min (for min. of 2 minutes), until the water outlet temperature if possible below 60°C. Simultaneously switch for 1 minute each to M1 respectively M2. * **Propeller pitch** in position "Reise". * Leave **throttle** at 1400 U/min. * Close cooler flaps. * Close the **Fuel-shut-off valve** (simultaneously the fast stop device at the engine is applied). * **Ignition** off. ====Behavior in special cases==== ===Touch and go=== ===Malfunction of the oil pressure device=== ===Engine failure=== ===Leakage=== ===Emergency landing=== ===Bail out===