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from D.(Luft)T.2412/1 (February 1940)

Note: The given values above are for a Bf 110 C-1, the C-2 is ~ 3 km/h slower.

Bf 110 C Manual - Part 10 – Flight

From Messerschmitt A.G. - Reg.Nr.173 (February 1940)

Note: This manual describes the Bf 110 C-1 and C-2

B. Starting The Engines

b) Starting with ground starter

  1. Close the Canopy.
  2. According ignition switch to “0”.
  3. Fuel-shut-off-valve (left of the pilot seat) in position “P1 + P2”.
  4. With fuel-hand-pump (lever left of the pilot seat) fill the fuel line. Through powerful pumping deair the pump.
  5. Close the flaps of the water-cooler (switch at the instrument panel) and the oil-cooler(lever left to the pilot seat).
  6. Automatic switch with remote release (cable control right to the observer/gunner seat) to “Ein”[on].
  7. Starter-circuit-breaker must be switched off (hand-knob right to the pilot seat must be unlocked and lay to the back). Connect the ground-starter through the plug to the out-board-connector (right side of the fuselage). Indicator lamp (in the main switch panel right to the observer/gunner seat) must be enlightened.
  8. Open throttle to 1/3. Moving for- and backward is useless.
  9. Set switch-valve of the starter-pump-fuel-line (right behind the pilot seat) to the selected engine and pump 2 – 3 times with the starter-pump, at hot engine only 1 – 2 strokes; at cold weather 4 to 5 strokes. After pumping set switch-valve back to center position.
  10. At the command “Frei” set ignition switch (left in the lever panel) of the according engine to “M1 + M2”.
  11. Push according starter-cable (right to the pilot seat) at hot engine circa 10 s, at cold engine ~ 20 s, to activate the momentum-starter; then pull the starter to engage the clutch.
  12. After start of the engine release the starter-cable and throttle to idle.
  13. Check oil-pressure (at the engine-cowling). By a cold engine the pressure must increase within 3 to 5 s, if not stop immediately the engine (ignition-switch to “0”). Oil-pressure-device and lines are to control for leakages.
  14. Disconnect ground starter.
  15. If engine doesn't start then wait some minutes and repeat start-process.

c) Starting with Accumulator

Starting with accumulator is to see as an emergency operation and is to avoid if possible.

  1. Step 1. - 6. like under starting with ground starter.
  2. Switch on starter-circuit-breaker (hand-knob right to the pilot seat must be pulled forward and locked). Indicator lamp must be enlightened.
  3. Step 8. – 13. like under starting with ground starter.
  4. Switch off starter-circuit-breaker (indicator lamp gets dark).
  5. Step 15. like under starting with ground starter.

d) Starting by hand

  1. Step 1. - 6. like under starting with ground starter.
  2. Starter-circuit-breaker stays in off-position. Insert starter-crank (placed in the left landing-gear-bay) into the lay-shaft (engine cowling right) of the momentum-starter.
  3. Step 8. - 10. like under starting with ground starter.
  4. If installed, operate the brushes-lifting-device. Wind the momentum-starter. At sufficient rotational speed of the starter (uniformly sound) remove the starter-crank. At Sign “Frei” engage the clutch through pulling (not pushing) of the starter-cable.
  5. Step 12. - 13. like under starting with ground starter.
  6. Place the Starter-crank in the left landing-gear-bay again.
  7. Step 15. like under starting with ground starter.

C. Warm-up of the engines

Attention! At cold-start attent special instruction (see “cold-start-preparation”, under VII.“Landing”).

  • After engine start let the engines run with low revolutions (circa 500 U/min), until oil-pressure has decreased to ~ 6 atü.
  • Increase the engine revolution up to 1200 U/min [RPM] (as a check pull the handle for igniter-flash-off, there-by speed drop to circa 800 U/min).
  • Slowly increase engine speed up to an oil-intake-temperature of ~ 50°C, so that the oil-pressure doesn't exceed 6 atü. With this speed let the engine warm-up. At the warm-up the oil-temp must not abruptly increase and the oil-pressure not abruptly fall, else stop the engine (corrective actions see engine manual DB 601 A).
  • If necessary regulate oil- and water-temperature adjusting the cooling-flaps.
  • Check engine instruments permanently.
  • Check ignition system. Set ignition-switch alternately to “M2” and “M1”. Speed-drop at only one magneto max. 35 U/min.
  • Check Fuel-system. Switch pump-lever alternately to “P1 + P2”, “P2”, “P1”. Stay in every of these positions for 1 minute, thereby must not a speed-drop or engine-shaking occur. Fuel-pressure 1,0 to 1,5 atü (gauge at concerning engine).
  • At running right engine, check the oil-pressure-system through extraction and retraction of the landing-flaps (switches left in the instrument panel). Attention! Don't accidentally activate the switches of the landing-gear.
  • Is the entire engine-systems all right and reaches the values below, then the engines can be tested.
Oil-intake-temperature min. 40 °C
Oil-pressure 3,5 atü
Fuel-pressure 1,0 – 1,5 atü
Water-temperature max. 80 °C

D. Testing the engines

  • Close the canopy. Snap in the handle in the mid overhead before the pilot seat and the handle at the gunner canopy in the mid overhead.
  • Before the speed-increase pull the elevator and hold the stick.
  • Propeller-pitch to 12 o'clock.
  • Push throttle equally fast to full throttle.
  • At activated circuit-breaker with remote release check the state of charge of the accumulator (volt- and ampere-meter at the main-switch-panel right to the gunner seat).
  • Check fuel-pumps again in the positions “P1” and“P2”. Stay for min. 15 in this position and check if fuel-pressure stays constant.
  • If not already done, open oil- and water-cooler-flaps.
  • Only accelerate fully, when
Water-temperature max. 80 °C
Oil-intake-temperature min. 40°C
  • At full throttle power (5 min.-power) must following values be reached:
Manifold-pressure 1,3 ata
Oil-pressure 2,5 to 5 atü
Fuel-pressure 1,0 to 1,5 atü

Attention! At exceeding of a water-temperature of 94°C reduce throttle immediately from full throttle to circa 800 U/min as long until the temperature notable decreases.

  • Check shortly the ignition system again. Set the ignition-switch alternately to “M2” and “M1”. Speed-drop at only one magneto max. 35 U/min.
  • Pull throttle slowly back.
  • If departure doesn't follows immediately, then let the engines run with 800 U/min. Attention! Follow cold-start-instruction.

III. Departure

1. Entry

At embarkation of the A/C use grasps in the fuselage and the ladder. Pull the ladder (at left fuselage side) out after pushing the button.

2. Allocation of Crew

  • Pilot on pilot seat (with closed belly and shoulder belt).
  • Companion at forward seat sitting in flight direction (with closed belly belt).

3. Preparations of the pilot before flight

  • Close canopy. Snap the lock handle in pilot cabin in position “Zu”[closed] and yoke at the gunner hatch at mid above (only close, when weapon is in lash position).
  • At great humidity and temperature below 0°C activate the pitot heater (Circuit breaker at switch-box right up before the pilot seat). Check the control lamp at the instrument panel.
  • Set altimeter to “height of the point of departure above the sea” and the fine-altimeter to “0”. Set the variometer-knob to variometer (Position “V”), never to statoscope.
  • Take care that the toggle at the [artificial] horizon is at “Aus”[off]; activate the horizon only before blind flying.
  • Check, if on-board power is activated (cable control for activation of the automatic-switch with remote release right to the observer/gunner seat).
  • Set elevator- and rudder-trim to center position (hand wheel left respectively lever right beside the pilot seat).
  • Propeller pitch to 12 o'clock. Move all flaps to see, if free.
  • Activate landing-gear-indicator (left at the instrument panel); green lamps must glow.
  • Note: At some A/C Bf 110 C-1 (version with small tail wheel) is at armed flight the right rearward tank empty; at training flight (w/o MG-FF weapon and ammunition) the the right rearward tank can be filled.
  • If the old fuel-pump-device is build in (marked through DBU-pump in the fuselage), is to take care at fuel-selection, that at armed flight the suction lever for the tanks is not switched to the right rearward tank.
  • At A/C Bf 110 C-1 with big tail wheel and A/C Bf 110 C-2 the right rearward tank can also be filled.

4. Starting the engines

For starting the engines see under “B. Starting The Engines”

5. Taxiing

  • Landing flaps in position “0”.
  • Water-temperature must not exceed 94°C.
  • Turning is through throttle up of the according engine or through according braking easily possible.
  • Don't taxi unnecessary long, or else excessive engine heating can occur.
  • At taxiing check brakes. Do not strain the brakes to long, since through the occur heating of the wheel body the tires can be damaged.

6. Start

  • Open oil- and water-cooler-flaps. Minimum temperature for the start:
Oil-entry-temperature 40°C
Water-temperature 60°C
  • Extract the landing-flaps to 20°.
  • Push the with “Aus”[out] marked landing-flap-switch, until the extraction (indicator left beside the pilot seat) is reached, then pull out the switch.
  • Do not turn with extracted landing-flaps. Throttle-lever to full throttle.
  • Revolution at start-begin to 2250 U/min, manifold pressure 1,30 ata.
  • Start distance circa 400 m.
  • Lift-off-speed circa 130 km/h.
  • After lift-off climb flat, until best climb-speed of 240 km/h for climb-flight is reached.
  • After overflight of the airfield border, in sufficient height set airscrew to climb position.

7. Retraction of the landing-flaps

  • Retract the landing-flaps (check indicator). Push the with “Ein” marked landing-flap-switch. If the switch after reaching the “0” position does not automatically switch back to it's original position, then pull the switch.
  • Attention! A/C drops suddenly at retraction of the landing-flaps; therefor retract flaps not until enough height and speed is obtained.

8. Retraction of the landing gear

  • Retract landing-gear (time circa 15 s).
  • Activate landing-gear-indicator.
  • Push saveguard of the landing-gear-switch down. Push the with “Ein” marked landing-gear-switch. If the switch after retraction of the landing-gear does not automatically switch back to it's original position, then pull the switch.
  • Control the landing-gear-indication-lamps (at the instrument panel).
  • If the switch jumps back to it's original position before the red lamps glow, then push the switch again, until the red lamps glow, then release immediately.
  • The tail wheel is not connected to the oil-pressure-system. Deactivate the landing-gear-indicator.
  • Compensate the change-of-gravity at retraction of the landing-gear through trim.

IV. Flight

1. Climb Flight

  • Do not perform a climb-flight with a manifold pressure of 1,3 ata and a revolution of 2400 U/min for longer that 5 minutes.
  • Revolution and manifold pressure has to be complied through change of propeller-pitch and throttle-position.
  • Conduct the climb-flight up to 4000 m with 240 km/h, above for every 1000 m reduce by 10 km/h.
  • Therefor keep the following values under sharpest control:
Oil-outlet-temperature max. 94 °C
Oil-pressure 2,5 to 5 atü
  • Do not extract landing-flaps at climb. Strictly control water-temperature. Before exceeding of the highest allowed temperatures reduce the engine-load.

2. Horizontal Flight

  • Following the revolutions and manifold pressures has to be complied:
Naming Revolution U/min Manifold
up to 5 km above 5 km ata
5 min.-full throttle 2400 2400 1,30
30 min.-power 2300 2400 1,20
cont. power 2200 2400 1,15
  • Adhere to the given values for revolution and manifold pressure through propeller pitch and throttle adjustment and must not be exceeded under any circumstances. Bring both engines to same manifold pressure and revolution (propeller pitch and throttle-position mustn't be the same, since the full-pressure-height of the engines differ).
Temperature Entry Outlet max.
for longer period 40° to 75° 95°
for short period 80° 105°
minimum 2,5 atü
maximum 5 atü
  • With increasing height the boiling temperature decreases; therefor emerge in different heights the following max. water-temperatures.
Height in km 1 - 3 6 8 10
Temperature in °C 95 -90 85 80 75
  • Water temperature near ground: minimum 60°C.
  • Check, in which position the landing gear is. Glowing of green lights means: Landing gear extracted, Glowing of red lights means: landing gear retracted. If the red lights stops to glow at activated landing-gear-indicator, so they will be brought back to glow through pushing the with “Ein” marked landing-gear-switch.
  • The amplitude of the turn indicator can be dampened through the actuation of the sensitivity dial (right to the pilot seat).
  • Activate the artificial horizon only at blind flying. Before aerobatic flight deactivate the horizon. Start aerobatics only 12 min. after deactivation of the horizon.
  • Do not trim at aerobatics and dives.

3. Allowed max. velocity for each flight conditions

250 km/h at actuation of landing-flaps and extracted landing-flaps
400 km/h at extracted landing gear
700 km/h in dive; in doing so engine rev max. 3000 U/min 30 s long

4. Fuel distribution at flight

The fuel is taken from the forward tanks. If the fuel dwindles in the forward tanks (rest-fuel indicator at the instrument panel starts glowing), then pump over the content of the rearward tanks into the forward tanks.

Pump over process

  • At fitted old fuel-system (recognizable through central pump in the fuselage) can the lever of the suction side of the valve-switch (right to the pilot seat) switched to all 4 tanks, the lever for the pressure side only to both forward tanks, that means the content of all tanks can be pumped over to the left or right forward tank. Set lever of the suction side to the right or left rearward tank.
  • Attention! At aircraft Bf 110 C-1 with small tail wheel is at armed flight the right rearward tank empty. set lever of the pressure side of the valve-switch to the right resp. left forward tank. Toggle switch (beside valve switch) in position “Ein”[on].
  • If the rest-fuel-indicator lights up for the tank, which content is pumped over, than switch lever of the suction side to another tank resp. (if the regarding 3 tanks are empty) set the toggle switch to “Aus”[off].
  • At fitted new fuel-system (recognizable through, that instead of a central pump in the fuselage in every tank a pump - rearward tanks - resp. a height pump - forward tanks - is fitted) the content of both rearward tanks will simultaneously be pumped over electively into the left forward or right forward tank.
  • Shall the content of the rearward tanks pumped over to one of the forward tanks, then lever for the valve switch to the according forward tank and pump lever in position “Ein”[on].
  • If the fuel pressure decrease below 1,1 atü, then set the height pumps through the toggle switch(beside the valve switch) to “Ein”[on].
  • Note: At failure of a fuel pump on the engine is a emergency-fuel-distribution through actuation of the fuel-hand-pump impossible.

5. Fuel metering

  • Fuel metering in flight through electric fuel gauge with double scale and dial (at the instrument panel) for each tank.
  • Proper indication only in horizontal position of the A/C possible.
  • Set dial to the tank, which content should be metered and read indication. Indication for the forward tanks at the upper scale, for the rearward tanks at the lower scale.
  • The single dial positions of the dial means:
    • dial position 1 = left forward tank,
    • dial position 2 = right forward tank,
    • dial position 3 = left rearward tank,
    • dial position 4 = right rearward tank.

V. Flight under special Conditions

1. Formation Flight

  • Experience of the Squadron.

2. Blind Flying

  • Experience of the Squadron.
  • Before blind flying activate the horizon (toggle at the horizon).

3. Dive

  • Trimming in dive like at horizontal full throttle flight.
  • Do not trim at the dive.
  • Attention! Oil- and water-temperature not under 40°C. Water-cooling-flaps according to ambient temperature half to complete closed.
  • Throttle to idle position.
  • Propeller pitch circa 9:30 o'clock.
  • Max. dive revolution 3000 U/min (only 30 s).
  • Max. velocity in the dive 700 km/h.

4. Night Flight

  • Activate the instrument lamps in pilot and companion cabin as required (circuit breaker front right in the pilot cabin).
  • Activate instrument lamps in the engine gondola after activation of the circuit breaker (front right in the pilot cabin) through pressing of the press button (right fuselage wall) as required.
  • Activate position lights (circuit breaker front right in the pilot cabin). At departure and landing illuminate (circuit breaker front right in the pilot cabin) the area through the landing light (in left wing).

5. Altitude Flight (with height breather)

  • Before begin of the altitude flight control, that the gasket of the hose coupling is present and not damaged.
  • By mouth piece breathing, close the nose with olive oil soaked cotton (to make breathing through the nose impossible).
  • By mask breathing, bear mask so that she sit comfortable and tight.
  • Wear insulation leather beneath the cap.
  • At 4000 m height open the remote-valve on the height breather and begin with oxygen breathing, even if no decrease of physical ability is sensibly.
  • Don't interrupt the started oxygen breathing. Adjust the additional throttle lever in accordance to height.
  • Monitor the pressure gauge at the breathing device.
  • At the rest of 20 atü in the oxygen device reduce height below 4000 m.
  • After usage close the remote-valve.
  • Is by departure known, that it will be immediately climbed above 4000 m height, then the masks have to be attached before departure respectively close the nose with olive oil soaked cotton. For the rest look above.

6. Flight with course autopilot

  • Note: there are only some Bf 110 C-1 aircraft with course autopilot fitted.
  • Activation of the course autopilot:
    • Set main switch to position 1.
    • Adjust through the direction-toggle the heading-indicator-basis according to the “Patin-Tochter”-compass on the adjacent course.
    • Through the control-knob bring the heading-indicator-rose in accordance with the heading-indicator-basis; pull out the knob (at pushed in knob the autopilot is declutched).
    • Toggle main switch to position 2.
  • Direction change:
    • Only adjust with direction-toggle the heading-indicator-basis to the new course.
  • At danger:
    • Push in the control-knob or toggle main switch to the left at “Aus”[off], in emergency pull the emergency-handle (at the instrument panel).
  • Deactivation of the course autopilot:
    • toggle main switch back to position 1.
    • Through toggling the main switch to “Aus”[off], deactivate heading-indicator.
  • Compare hereto the operation manual for course autopilot “K4ü”.

VI. Behavior in special cases

1. Touch-and-go

  • Propeller pitch to 12 o'clock (start position, eminently important).
  • Give full throttle.
  • At touch-and-go by no means retract landing flaps, since the aircraft drops suddenly at retraction of landing flaps.
  • after reaching a secure height of 100 m, bring landing flaps back to “0” position. Keep in mind at touch-and-go the velocity limit of 250 km/h by extracted landing flaps.

2. One-engine-flight

  • Stopped engine:
    • Ignition off.
    • Throttle to idle position.
    • Propeller to feathering position.
    • Flaps closed.
  • Running engine:
    • Propeller pitch to 12 o'clock.
    • Open flaps.
    • Compensate the torsional moment around the vertical axis through foot-force or through adjustment of the rudder-trim (lever right to the pilot seat), until aircraft flies straight.
    • Landing-gear retracted.
    • Landing-flaps in “0” position.
    • Extract landing-gear and landing-flaps short before glide in to the place. At glide in set rudder-trim back to center-position.
    • A touch-and-go with one engine is impossible.
    • Maneuvering with one engine on the ground is not possible. The attempt leads unavoidably to a destruction of the tires.

3. Emergency Landing

  • At a to an immediately emergency-landing forcing failure or at unfavorable area has to be landed with retracted landing gear.
  • At sufficient height and else adequate conditions, extract the landing gear (time 15 s) at emergency landing.
  • Extract landing flaps completely.
  • At failure of the right engine extract landing-gear and landing-flaps through emergency release (see “Failure of the oil-pressure-system”). Pilot and companion at their seats and strapped.
  • Before landing:
    • Switch ignition off.
    • Close fuel-shut-off-valves.
    • Push power-off-switch.
    • At estimated crash open canopy beforehand.

4. Failure of the oil pressure system

  • Keep in mind, that the oil pump of the oil pressure system is actuated through the right engine.
  • Press the with “Aus”[out] marked landing-gear and landing-flaps switches (unlock landing-gear switch prior).
  • Turn slowly the emergency-valves (blue marked hand-wheels left before the pilot seat) for landing-gear and landing-flaps in arrow direction (landing flaps extract completely).
  • After extraction close the valves.
  • After extraction of the landing-gear and the landing-flaps through emergency release, is a retraction through oil-pressure not more possible.

5. Bail out

  • Pilot:
    • Inform companion.
    • If possible, adjust propeller pitch to feathering.
    • Reduce throttle, ignition off, close fuel-shut-off-valves and push the power-off-switch.
    • Unstrap.
    • Open canopy an leave the A/C.
    • Beware of airscrew and antenna mast.
  • Companion:
    • Unstrap.
    • Pull red marked cabin-drop-lever (behind the seat or front left) and leave the A/C.
    • Beware of airscrew and antenna mast.

VII. Landing

  • Allocation of the crew given like under “Departure”.
  • Propeller pitch to 12 o'clock (start position). Do not let the engines get to cold at glide, therefor close cooling flaps.
  • Reduce speed to 200 km/h.
  • Activate landing-gear-indicator (red lamps must glow).
  • Extract the landing gear (time 15 s).
  • Push the with “Aus”[out] marked landing-gear-switch. Check landing-gear-indicator (at the instrument panel). Landing gear is completely extracted, when the green lamps glow. Simultaneously the landing-gear-switch returns automatically to it original position. If the switch doesn't return, then pull the switch back.
  • Is the landing-gear not completely extracted, then sounds the signal horn at the extraction of the landing flaps; upon this the landing-gear-switch must be pressed again.
  • After turning into the landing direction, extract the landing-flaps completely (50°) (do not extract completely at strong wind). Do not exceed a speed of 250 km/h at extracted flaps.
  • Push the with “Aus” marked landing-flaps-switch.
  • Attention! Attend warning sign (signal horn). If the switch doesn't return to it's original position, then pull the switch back.
  • Compensate the center of gravity change at extraction of landing-gear and landing-flaps through trimming.
  • Hover in with 150 to 160 km/h.
  • The A/C is in heavy nose down, the glide angle is steeper.
  • The A/C looses in less steep position, such as flare out resp. throttle down very swift on speed (see print Bfw-start-and-landing-technic with landing flaps).
  • At roll out use brakes sparely, to reduce high brakes- and tire-wearout.
  • If multiple braked landing (training) are necessary, so must be between each landing a time of 10 min. lie.
  • After a hard braked landing, do not brake hard or the tires can move through heating.

Shut off the engines

  • Open all cooling-flaps, to cool down the engines.
  • Revolution 800 U/min (not less), water-temperature must not exceed 80°C, then reduce throttle slowly.
  • Stay for ~ 2 min. long at idle, to cool down the spark plugs; thereby switch ignition 1 min. long to “M2” and then 1 min. long to “M1”.
  • Then let the fast-stop-cable be pulled at the fuselage shown side of the according landing-gear-bay through the ground crew.
  • Ignition to off.
  • Close the fuel-shot-off-valves.
  • Push the power-off-button.
hbf110c.txt · Last modified: 2013/06/11 08:27 by kodoss