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======Messerschmitt Bf 109 E-1a/E-3a====== =====Engine===== DB 601 Aa with blower height = 4000 m ^ on ground ^^^ in height ^^^^ | rating | RPM | ata | rating | h in m | RPM | ata | | 1' | 2500 | 1,45 | 5' | 3700 | 2400 | 1,35 | | 5' | 2400 | 1,35 | 30' | 4100 | 2400 | 1,3 | | 30' | 2300 | 1,3 | d | 4500 | 2400 | 1,2 | | d | 2200 | 1,2 | econ | 3850 | 2250 | | =====Aircraft mechanic before and after flight===== - Prepare for flight ====Starting the engine==== - Close the canopy (canopy handle in position „Zu“[closed]). Open right window. - Gear lever in position „Ruhe“[rest]. - Activate Bordnetz [main power supply] (pull button on the right behind the seat). - Fuel shut off valve lever in position „Auf“[open]. - Throttle to idle. Tank pressure switch to „Behälter entlüftet“[tank deaired]. - With the starter pump increase the fuel pressure to 0,5 atü. - Let the starter be charged (crank handle in the trunk, starter shaft top right). - Inject with the injector pump 2 or 3 times (at cold weather 4 or 5 times). By hot engine only 1 or 2 injections. Control that after usage of the pump the actuation button rest against the guidance nut. - On call „Frei“[free] insert the key into the ignition switch and select „M 1 + 2“. - Pull the handle for igniter burn off (timing) and hold it; can't be locked. - Pull the handle for the starter. - After start of the engine release the handles. - Control oil pressure: by cold engine within the first 3 to 5 seconds the pressure must have risen to 6 to 8 atü; if not stop the engine immediately. - Strap the crank handle in the trunk. Step rearwards from the wing. Don't step on the landing flaps. Engine doesn't start: before the restart wait some minutes, then repeat the procedure. ====Warm up of the engine==== - Open water cooler flaps as needed(crank handle right beside the seat); control device for flap adjustment on the wings (sunken rod = flaps open) - At colt weather close the oil cooler (lever left beside the seat). - After engine start slowly increase the RPM by beginning fall of oil pressure to max. 1000 RPM. Keep here the oil pressure between 5 and 6 atü. ====Checks during warm up==== - Control repeatedly the ignition through shifting of the ignition switch at different RPM. Check if the engine is running smooth. - At circa 1400 RPM control the fuel pump: switch the fuel shut off valve for an half minute to „P2“ and „P1“ and check the fuel pressure for intense unsteadiness or rough running engine. - 3. At circa 1900 RPM control the power supply: deactivate Bordnetz [main power supply] („Netz-Aus“ switch at the instrument board), activate the electrical equipment (switchbox top tight). After testing switch of the equipment and activate the Bordnetz [main power supply] (pull button on the right behind the seat). ====Braking the engine==== Braking is only needed, if the interval between 2 flights is more than 2 hours. __Attention!__ Trim full tail heavy. Position the A/C exact opposite to the wind. If possible strain the tail. - Check if the cabin is closed. - Propeller pitch to 12 o'clock. - Open water cooler. At low oil temperature keep the oil cooler initially closed. - Only braking at min. 30°C oil entry temp (push button on gauge) and max. 80°C water temp at beginning of braking. - Pull the Stick and hold it. - Push the throttle steady to full throttle. - At full throttle check gauges. ^ Values at braking ^^ | Revs (at 12 o'clock) | 2200 to 2250 U/min[RPM] | | pressure | 1,35 ata | | oil pressure | 2,5 to 6 atü (normal 3,5) | | water temperature | max. 94°C | | oil entry temperature | min. 30°C | | fuel pressure | 1,1 to 1,5 atü | - Check ignition again. Max. 50 U/min loss of Revs. - Check if engine runs smooth and steady. - Take throttle slowly back. __Attention!__ If water temperature exceeds 94°C immediately reduce from full throttle to 1100 U/min until water temp falls. ====Engine shut off==== - Throttle to idle. - Let the engine cool down for circa 3 minutes in idle; set ignition for some time to „M2“, then „M1“ and after that to „0“. Water temperature should not be more than 80°C. - Close the fuel shut off valve only when the engine stopped running. - Deactivate the Bordnetz [main power supply] („Netz-Aus“ switch). =====Pilot===== ====I. Preparation for start==== For starting the engine, warm up, braking and engine shut off see aircraft mechanic. - Close the cabin (cabin handle in position „Zu“[closed]) Attention! Block bolts have to connect correctly. Check if: - Fuel shut off valve is open. Tank pressure switch to „Behälter entlüftet“[tank deaired]. - Water and oil cooler flaps are open. - Bordnetz [Main power supply] activated. - Temp and pressure gauges are working. - Air screw in 12 o'clock position. - Green gear lamps glowing (observe also mechanic indication). - Elevator trimmed in position 0 to +1° (indicator in front of hand wheel). - At high air humidity and temps below 0°C activate the pitot tube heater (indicator on instrument panel). ====II. Taxing==== - Landing flaps in zero position. - Control that water temp doesn't rise above 94°C. - For tight turns roll straight ahead with increased throttle, then start the turn with the brake and throttle down. ====III. Start==== - Adjust landing flaps to 20°, wheel left, indication on left landing flap. - Start. - Out of the start increase the velocity to best climb (on ground circa 250 km/h) - Thereby retract landing gear. Landing gear handle in position „Ein“[up]. After retraction the handle returns autonomous in position „Ruhe“[neutral] (if not then pull on the handle). If the landing gear doesn't retract correctly, then turn the handle again in position „Ein“. Steady indication of the landing gear through mechanical Indicator. Indication of the end position through electrical indicator: red = complete retracted green = complete extracted Lamps can be switched off, start to glow autonomously at extraction of the landing flaps. Signal horn sounds if landing gear is not locked in down position and landing flaps are engaged. - Retract the landing flaps. Trim the A/C! (indicator on left landing flap) Both hand wheels can be turned at the same time. __Notice:__ By a failure of the engine fuel pump an emergency fuel aid by usage of the hand fuel pump is impossible. ====IV. Flight==== * Flight limits ^ Max. allowed Velocity ^^ | at landing flap operation | 250 km/h | | at full extracted landing flaps | 250 km/h | | at full extracted landing gear | 350 km/h | | at extraction and retraction |220 km/h | | in a dive | 750 km/h | * Best indicated air speed for climb ^ Height (m) | 0 | 1000 | 2000 | 3000 | 4000 | 5000 | 6000 | 7000 | ^ v<sub>a</sub> (km/h) | 250 | 243 | 236 | 229 | 222 | 215 | 208 | 200 | __Attention!__ If the fuel pressure declines below 1 atü in great heights, than activate the tank pressure device (Tank pressure switch to „Behälter unter Druck“[tank under pressure]) * Propeller pitch Adjust the propeller pitch, that the specified values below are maintained. * Operating data ^ Engine revs and pressure ^^^ | | RPM[U/min] | pressure[ata] | | Increased short power = 1' | 2468 | 1,45 | | Short power = 5' | 2368 | 1,35 | | Increased cont. power = 30' | 2326 | 1,3 | ^ Oil temperature and pressure ^^^ | Temperature | ingoing | outgoing max. | | For longer time | 30°C to 75°C | 95°C | | For short time | 80°C | 105°C | | Pressure | min. 2,5 atü | max. 6 atü | Water temperature: on ground level min 60°C max. temperature in height: ^ Height in km | 0 | 2 | 4 | 6 | 8 | 10 | ^ °C | 100 | 95 | 91 | 87 | 82 |78 | ^ Fuel pressure: | min. 1,1 atü | max 1,5 atü | * Fuel metering in flight Indicator at the instrument board. Faultless indication only in horizontal position. Switch for metering unit on the right panel. After light up of the rest fuel indicator on the instrument panel only fuel for 10 min. travel flight are left. * cooler flaps adjustment At normal ambient temperature water cooler half closed. At decreasing of the specified temperature close the flaps accordingly. After flap adjustment additional trimming is required. __Note:__ The aircraft velocity depends on the flap adjustment. To reach max. velocity open flaps as far as temps doesn't excess max. values. * Ventilation of the cabin Through adjustment of the hand lever at top of the instrument panel. ====V. Landing==== * Reduce speed to 220 km/h. * Propeller pith to 12 o'clock. * Extract landing gear: gear lever in position „Aus“[down]. After extraction the gear lever goes autonomously to position „Ruhe“[neutral] (if not then pull the lever). If the landing gear isn't completly locked, then turn the lever again to „Aus“. Steady indication through mechanical indicator. Indication of end position through electrical indicator. Red = complete retracted Green = complete extracted Signal horn sounds at not complete extracted landing gear and extracting landing flaps. * Extract the landing flaps complete (40°). Trim! Both hand wheels can be turned at the same time. By extraction of the landing flaps the signal must be silent, or else landing gear is not locked in down position. __Attention!__ Adhere the velocity limit of 250 km/h by engaged landing flaps. * Float in with circa 150 km/h indication. The aircraft is pitched strong nose down, glide angle is steep. The A/C loses in less steep angle, as an example to pull out or throttle reduction, rapidly on velocity. * Alternative view at iced windows through foldaway left forward panel (pull the lock bar). ====VI. Flight under special conditions==== * Dive * Adjust elevator trim, that the A/C can only be hold in a dive through light pushing. This condition is achieved at best by trimming from travel condition 1/2° to tail heavy. If noticed during the dive, that the stick force in direction push reduces, than break up the dive at once. * Throttle in idle position. * Adhere, that oil- and water temperature doesn't sink below 40°C. Close the water cooler half to complete dependent on weather conditions. * Propeller pitch circa 9:30 o'clock. __Attention!__ Max. allowed engine revs for dive 3000 U/min[RPM]. * Flight at night Activate electrical illuminator. At to high brightness of the landing gear warning light and catch control lights of the fixed armament, duct tape can be glued over the lamps. Especially check the elevator trim before the start. * Altitude flight * By mouth piece breathing, close the nose with olive oil soaked cotton (to make breathing through the nose impossible). * By mask breathing, bear mask so that she sit comfortable and tight. * Wear insulation leather beneath the cap. * At 4000 m height open the valve on the height breather and begin with oxygen breathing, even if no decrease of physical ability is sensibly. * Don't interrupt the started oxygen breathing. * Adjust the additional throttle lever in accordance to height. * Monitor the pressure gauge at the breathing device. * At the rest of 10 atü in the oxygen device reduce height below 4000 m. * After usage close the valves from the oxygen devices. * Is by departure known, that it will be immediately climbed above 4000 m height, then the masks have to be attached before departure respectively close the nose with olive oil soaked cotton. For the rest look above. ====VII. Emergencies==== * Touch and go Touch and go with full deflected landing flaps. After touch and go retract flaps slowly in adequate height above the ground and trim the aircraft. __Attention!__ Consider even by touch and go the speed limit of 250 km/h at deflected flaps. * Landing gear emergency extraction with defect oil pressure device. - Landing gear in position „Aus“[down]. - Pull the emergency lever with a strong jerk. - If the landing gear isn't locked (end position recognizably through green lights at the landing gear indicator) locking can be achieved through banking. * Emergency landing through engine fault * At low height pull up immediately, until V-200 km/h is attained. * Deflect landing flaps full, trim tail heavy. * Extract the landing gear through the emergency extraction. __Attention!__ At bad area an emergency landing is saver with retracted landing gear. At high altitude it is practicable, to achieve a bigger distance, to begin with landing gear and flaps extraction at a height below 1000 m. * Propeller pitch to feathered. * Press the „Netz-Aus“ [main power off] switch. * Switch off ignition. * Fuel shut of valve in position „Zu“[closed]. * Bail out - Reduce speed if possible. - If possibly: press „Netz-Aus“ [main power off], switch ignition off, close fuel shut of valve in position „Zu“[closed]. - Pull red marked cabin lever at the left side of the fuselage. (cabin will be entrained through the air stream) - Unstrap and leave the A/C.